Astronomy Answers
Planetary Phenomena 1978


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The diagram below is explained further on the page for the year 2000.

1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105

[1978] [Q 1978]

For an explanation of the above pictures, see the page for the year 2000.

The last table on this page lists a number of noteworthy planetary phenomena during the listed year. The first column ("date") gives the date and hour, in the form year-month-dayThour in the Gregorian calendar, in Universal Time (UT). The second column ("pl") identifies the planet that shows the phenomenon:

pl Planet
Me Mercury
Ve Venus
Ma Mars
Ju Jupiter
Sa Saturn
Ur Uranus
Ne Neptune
Lu Moon

The third column ("*") provides the type of the phenomenon. The fourth column ("AU") shows the value (distance) in Astronomical Units, if applicable. The fifth column ("deg") gives the value of a relevant angle (declination \( δ \), elongation \( E \), conjunction spread \( σ \), or ecliptic longitude \( λ \)) in degrees. Which angle it is for each phenomenon is shown below in column "?". Declinations and ecliptical longitudes are measured relative to the equinox of the date.

 ?  
Explanation
p perigee
a apogee
+dδgreatest northern declination
dδgreatest southern declination
cλconjunction (with the Sun)
oλopposition (relative to the Sun)
eEgreatest elongation
xaλpassage through the ascending node (zero ecliptical latitude)
xdλpassage through the descending node (zero ecliptical latitude)
bσleast conjunction spread (Mercury - Saturn)
Bσleast conjunction spread (Mercury - Neptune)
sσgreatest conjunction spread (Mercury - Saturn)
Sσgreatest conjunction spread (Mercury - Neptune)
Vλbegin eastward (prograde) acceleration
Pgλstationary point: begin eastward (prograde) motion
vλbegin westward (retrograde) acceleration
Rgλstationary point: begin westward (retrograde) motion

The calculations for the planets are based on the VSOP87 model (type A) of Laskar, and the calculations for the Moon are based on the most detailed model from [Meeus]. One position per day was calculated for each celestial object. The hour of the day for each phenomenon was determined by interpolation.

date pl * AU deg
1978-01-02T09 Lu xa +190.33
1978-01-02T20
** 
B +129.62
1978-01-04T23 Ve v +280.17
1978-01-07T18 Lu d −18.53
1978-01-08T12 Lu p 0.002390
1978-01-08T13 Lu v +279.06
1978-01-09T04 Lu c +288.55
1978-01-11T13 Me e −23.41
1978-01-14T19 Lu xd +9.07
1978-01-17T06
** 
S +193.58
1978-01-18T20 Pl Rg +196.70
1978-01-19T03 Ma p 0.6532
1978-01-20T10 Lu V +77.25
1978-01-20T22 Ma V +122.05
1978-01-21T02 Lu a 0.002715
1978-01-21T07 Lu +d +18.48
1978-01-22T00 Ma o +121.61
1978-01-22T05 Me xa +280.52
1978-01-22T12 Ve o +302.18
1978-01-23T18 Me d −23.05
1978-01-24T07 Lu o +123.96
1978-01-24T17 Ve a 1.712
1978-01-27T19
** 
s +223.27
1978-01-29T09 Lu xa +187.44
1978-01-29T18
** 
B +159.64
1978-02-04T05 Lu d −18.39
1978-02-05T21 Lu p 0.002415
1978-02-05T21 Lu v +292.88
1978-02-07T14 Lu c +318.51
1978-02-11T00 Lu xd +6.69
1978-02-13T03
** 
S +256.92
1978-02-15T22 Sa V +147.15
1978-02-15T23 Sa p 8.237
1978-02-16T03 Sa o +147.13
1978-02-17T09 Lu V +85.14
1978-02-17T15 Lu +d +18.31
1978-02-17T18 Lu a 0.002708
1978-02-18T00 Ma +d +25.45
1978-02-18T17 Ur d −16.36
1978-02-19T12 Ur Rg +226.41
1978-02-19T13 Me a 1.391
1978-02-20T00 Ju Pg +86.07
1978-02-23T01 Lu o +154.06
1978-02-25T01
** 
B +194.48
1978-02-25T13 Lu xa +186.04
1978-02-27T12 Me o +338.88
1978-03-02T09 Ma Pg +112.28
1978-03-03T13 Lu d −18.24
1978-03-05T16 Lu p 0.002452
1978-03-05T17 Lu v +299.47
1978-03-05T23 Ne d −21.48
1978-03-07T01 Me v +353.33
1978-03-08T07
** 
S +281.94
1978-03-09T02 Lu c +308.79
1978-03-10T09 Lu xd +5.87
1978-03-12T21 Me xd +4.54
1978-03-16T23 Lu +d +18.20
1978-03-17T12 Lu V +94.59
1978-03-17T14 Lu a 0.002703
1978-03-20T15 Ne Rg +258.32
1978-03-22T06
** 
B +181.36
1978-03-24T12 Me e +18.53
1978-03-24T16 Lu o +183.68
1978-03-24T20 Lu xa +185.91
1978-03-30T18 Lu d −18.19
1978-03-31T02 Lu v +273.32
1978-03-31T05 Lu p 0.002473
1978-04-01T16 Me Rg +26.13
1978-04-02T01 Me +d +13.15
1978-04-02T17
** 
S +234.89
1978-04-05T12 Pl c +195.33
1978-04-05T17 Pl V +195.32
1978-04-06T18 Lu xd +5.92
1978-04-07T14 Pl p 29.42
1978-04-07T15 Lu c +17.43
1978-04-10T04 Ju xd +89.75
1978-04-10T23
** 
b +97.01
1978-04-11T16 Me c +21.44
1978-04-12T13 Me V +20.80
1978-04-13T07 Lu +d +18.22
1978-04-14T10 Lu a 0.002703
1978-04-14T14 Lu V +103.74
1978-04-15T01 Me p 0.5765
1978-04-16T17 Ve xd +47.02
1978-04-17T21
** 
B +164.43
1978-04-18T16
** 
s +97.32
1978-04-20T05 Me xa +15.93
1978-04-21T05 Lu xa +185.84
1978-04-21T07 Ju +d +23.45
1978-04-23T04 Lu o +212.64
1978-04-23T07 Sa +d +15.08
1978-04-25T06 Me Pg +14.86
1978-04-25T11 Sa Pg +143.65
1978-04-26T06 Lu v +257.49
1978-04-26T08 Lu p 0.002446
1978-04-27T01 Lu d −18.27
1978-04-30T03 Me d +4.18
1978-04-30T08
** 
S +213.82
1978-05-04T00 Lu xd +5.50
1978-05-05T05 Ur o +224.39
1978-05-05T08 Ur V +224.38
1978-05-05T12 Ur p 17.62
1978-05-07T04 Lu c +46.26
1978-05-09T13 Me e −26.21
1978-05-10T16 Lu +d +18.33
1978-05-12T03 Lu a 0.002709
1978-05-12T15 Lu V +111.95
1978-05-16T13
** 
B +143.43
1978-05-18T12 Lu xa +184.66
1978-05-22T05 Pl +d +10.53
1978-05-22T13 Lu o +241.08
1978-05-24T04 Lu v +265.27
1978-05-24T05 Lu p 0.002413
1978-05-24T09 Lu d −18.38
1978-05-24T19 Ve +d +24.95
1978-05-27T18
** 
S +177.49
1978-05-31T02 Lu xd +3.78
1978-06-05T19 Lu c +74.74
1978-06-07T00 Lu +d +18.43
1978-06-07T23 Ne V +256.94
1978-06-08T01 Ne o +256.94
1978-06-08T12 Ne p 29.27
1978-06-08T17 Lu a 0.002715
1978-06-08T20 Me xd +70.82
1978-06-09T09 Lu V +117.89
1978-06-13T21
** 
B +112.66
1978-06-14T03 Me v +82.29
1978-06-14T12 Me o +83.10
1978-06-14T16 Lu xa +182.14
1978-06-14T20 Me a 1.323
1978-06-20T03 Me +d +24.95
1978-06-20T20 Lu o +269.16
1978-06-20T21 Lu d −18.44
1978-06-21T10 Lu v +277.86
1978-06-21T12 Lu p 0.002391
1978-06-24T04 Pl Pg +193.91
1978-06-25T01
** 
S +142.29
1978-06-27T03 Lu xd +1.02
1978-07-04T07 Lu +d +18.44
1978-07-05T09 Lu c +103.02
1978-07-05T23 Lu a 0.002718
1978-07-06T13 Lu V +116.92
1978-07-07T21
** 
b +38.59
1978-07-08T17 Ju v +107.45
1978-07-10T10 Ju c +107.83
1978-07-11T15
** 
B +88.19
1978-07-11T18 Lu xa +179.28
1978-07-12T01 Ju a 6.224
1978-07-17T04 Me xa +140.63
1978-07-18T08 Lu d −18.38
1978-07-19T13 Ur +d −15.18
1978-07-19T18 Lu v +291.80
1978-07-19T21 Lu p 0.002387
1978-07-20T03 Lu o +297.06
1978-07-21T07 Ur Pg +222.32
1978-07-21T21 Me e +26.90
1978-07-23T20
** 
S +125.10
1978-07-24T07 Lu xd +358.37
1978-07-31T14 Lu +d +18.34
1978-08-02T00 Lu V +107.53
1978-08-02T03 Lu a 0.002717
1978-08-04T01 Lu c +131.33
1978-08-04T22 Me Rg +153.01
1978-08-06T06 Ve xa +178.00
1978-08-07T20 Lu xa +177.30
1978-08-08T04
** 
B +79.11
1978-08-08T22 Me d +6.52
1978-08-12T15 Ne +d −21.21
1978-08-14T19 Lu d −18.26
1978-08-15T14 Me p 0.6078
1978-08-17T03 Lu v +305.80
1978-08-17T06 Lu p 0.002401
1978-08-17T23 Me V +146.24
1978-08-18T10 Lu o +325.14
1978-08-18T20 Me c +145.52
1978-08-20T14 Lu xd +356.96
1978-08-21T05
** 
S +123.59
1978-08-27T14 Sa c +153.98
1978-08-27T20 Sa a 10.29
1978-08-27T20 Ne Pg +255.55
1978-08-27T21 Lu +d +18.21
1978-08-27T23 Sa v +154.03
1978-08-28T15 Me Pg +140.34
1978-08-29T06 Ve e +46.08
1978-08-29T09 Lu V +108.68
1978-08-29T13 Lu a 0.002711
1978-09-02T16 Lu c +159.84
1978-09-03T10 Me +d +13.62
1978-09-04T00 Lu xa +176.71
1978-09-04T20 Me xd +143.89
1978-09-04T21 Me e −18.06
1978-09-05T03
** 
B +81.13
1978-09-11T02 Lu d −18.17
1978-09-14T07 Lu v +317.35
1978-09-14T09 Lu p 0.002431
1978-09-16T17 Ma xa +207.91
1978-09-16T19 Lu o +353.54
1978-09-17T00 Lu xd +356.75
1978-09-18T02
** 
S +120.98
1978-09-21T10 Me v +170.27
1978-09-24T05 Lu +d +18.17
1978-09-26T05 Lu V +115.05
1978-09-26T05 Lu a 0.002705
1978-09-30T11 Me o +186.87
1978-10-01T08 Lu xa +176.80
1978-10-02T06 Lu c +188.73
1978-10-03T07
** 
B +75.48
1978-10-08T01 Pl a 31.27
1978-10-08T06 Me a 1.418
1978-10-08T08 Lu d −18.19
1978-10-10T01 Pl v +196.61
1978-10-10T12 Pl o +196.63
1978-10-11T11 Lu v +315.40
1978-10-11T15 Lu p 0.002465
1978-10-13T03 Me xa +208.29
1978-10-14T09 Lu xd +356.69
1978-10-16T06 Lu o +22.52
1978-10-16T17
** 
S +119.67
1978-10-18T03 Ve Rg +232.81
1978-10-18T23 Ve d −25.00
1978-10-21T14 Lu +d +18.24
1978-10-24T01 Lu a 0.002703
1978-10-24T06 Lu V +123.21
1978-10-28T15 Lu xa +176.30
1978-10-31T05
** 
B +78.75
1978-10-31T20 Lu c +218.04
1978-11-04T14 Lu d −18.32
1978-11-04T21 Lu v +275.53
1978-11-05T11 Lu p 0.002467
1978-11-07T21 Ve c +225.13
1978-11-08T03 Ve V +224.98
1978-11-08T15 Ve p 0.2690
1978-11-09T03 Ur v +226.71
1978-11-09T04 Ur a 19.65
1978-11-09T11 Ur c +226.73
1978-11-10T14 Lu xd +355.61
1978-11-13T20
** 
S +125.81
1978-11-14T20 Lu o +52.11
1978-11-16T03 Me e +22.43
1978-11-17T23 Lu +d +18.40
1978-11-19T07 Me d −25.45
1978-11-20T21 Lu a 0.002705
1978-11-21T08 Lu V +131.93
1978-11-22T03 Ju d +18.44
1978-11-24T21 Lu xa +174.30
1978-11-25T19 Ju Rg +129.06
1978-11-25T21 Me Rg +261.63
1978-11-27T09 Ve xd +217.37
1978-11-28T03
** 
B +87.03
1978-11-28T13 Ve Pg +217.34
1978-11-30T00
** 
s +111.56
1978-11-30T08 Lu c +247.75
1978-12-01T19 Me xd +258.55
1978-12-01T23 Lu d −18.46
1978-12-02T09 Lu v +277.78
1978-12-02T16 Lu p 0.002431
1978-12-05T17 Me p 0.6783
1978-12-05T20 Me V +253.45
1978-12-05T21 Me c +253.40
1978-12-07T15 Lu xd +353.00
1978-12-09T04
** 
b +110.30
1978-12-09T18 Ve +d −12.67
1978-12-09T23 Ne a 31.27
1978-12-10T05 Ne v +258.03
1978-12-10T11 Ne c +258.04
1978-12-11T02
** 
S +129.21
1978-12-13T15 Ma a 2.402
1978-12-14T07 Ma d −24.26
1978-12-14T12 Lu o +82.17
1978-12-14T20 Pl d +8.27
1978-12-15T08 Lu +d +18.51
1978-12-15T11 Me +d −18.39
1978-12-15T16 Me Pg +245.36
1978-12-18T16 Lu a 0.002712
1978-12-19T04 Sa d +7.99
1978-12-19T08 Lu V +139.97
1978-12-21T23 Lu xa +171.19
1978-12-24T20 Sa Rg +163.94
1978-12-25T01 Me e −21.93
1978-12-25T09
** 
B +91.67
1978-12-29T11 Lu d −18.50
1978-12-29T19 Lu c +277.75
1978-12-30T16 Lu v +290.75
1978-12-30T21 Lu p 0.002399



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